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Country essay on Haiti 1. Part: Background and Position (length 1200- 1600 words) This section should include a brief introduction and a comprehensive breakdown and critical assessment of the country’s position on climate change. An excellent background section would include: Brief introduction of the country’s economy and vital national interests; The country’s geography and its vulnerability to climate change and natural disasters; Public opinion about climate change; The country’s history on climate change, the Kyoto Protocol and Paris Agreement pledges, and mechanisms to reduce global warming; Political and/or foreign policy already enacted; Conventions, and resolutions that the country has approved and specific actions taken by the government; Influence of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) on decision making; Critical assessment of your national pledges, targets and INDCs and currently implemented policy to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. Is your country doing what it could do? Are the targets sufficient enough? Quotes taken from speeches made by heads of government; The type of resolution the country hopes to accomplish; Politically feasibility; Current statistical data; At least 8 appropriate references. A complete reference list (note: all sources cited in text, tables, and figures must appear in the reference list, and all entries in the reference list must be cited in text); Harvard Style referencing. 2. Part: Resolution (length: 250-400 words) The resolution section proposes how to mitigate climate change. This part is fictional. In this part you have to make your conclusion out of your research in part 1. This is what you think your country should propose in our simulation. But remember, you still have to work in the best interest of your country. For that I would like you to focus on three questions: Actions to reduce carbon emissions, if any. Without action, your country’s emissions are very likely expected to continue growing dramatically. What is feasible? You need to decide when your emissions will stop growing, when they will begin declining, and at what annual rate emissions decline, if at all. Whether to make a commitment to reduce deforestation or to increase reforestation or afforestation. How much funding to demand from/contribute to the Green Climate Fund, a fund that is intended to provide at least $100 billion/year by 2020 for developing countries to reduce their emissions and adapt to climate change Referencing Please use the Harvard citation style. Following links help you to understand the rules of it: Harvard citation reference guide Harvard: citing in-text All sources cited in text, tables, and figures must appear in the reference list, and all entries in the reference list must be cited in text. Direct quotations longer than 2 lines should be inserted as a separate, indented paragraph. However, direct quotations should be used as little as possible. Writing is about conveying your thoughts, ideas, knowledge and more through your own words. When you use too many words from the mouths of others, it is no longer your own work. Also, you might have it in your own words, but you run the risk of patchwork plagiarizing, where you piece the words of others together and present them as your own. Useful websites (to get you started) The Global Climate Legislation Study: https://www.lse.ac.uk/granthaminstitute/research-areas/climate-change-governance-legislation-and-litigation/ Probably one of the most informative sides, with legislative profiles of all countries and latest developments in climate legislation. Official site for the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change: http://unfccc.int/2860.php http://newsroom.unfccc.int Lots of information – take care and don’t get bogged down in irrelevant bureaucracy. Climate Change resources in the United Nations: http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/climate-change-2/ Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change https://www.ipcc.ch Research Tips It is useful to divide your research into three categories: 1. General research on climate change, focusing on previous international negotiations to mitigate climate change (e.g. Kyoto Protocol and Paris Agreement) 2. Research on your assigned country’s policies with regard to climate change critically. 3. General research on your assigned country’s background and culture If you use the Internet for your research you should make sure that you carefully select your sources. The amount of materials available is far greater than what you can digest in the amount of time you have available. Keep in mind that web sites are not always reliable sources of information. Carefully select the sources you wish to rely on for preparing your arguments. When searching libraries or the Internet for information you might want to look for several keywords that are related to your topic. Sometimes, different spellings or alternative wordings may lead you to additional sources of information. In addition to libraries and the Internet, newspaper archives and NGOs (Non Governmental Organizations) are also useful resources. NGOs are voluntary citizens’ groups that perform a variety of services and humanitarian functions, bring citizens’ concerns to Governments, monitor policies and encourage political participation at the community level. They provide analysis of issues, serve as early warning mechanisms and help monitor and implement international agreements. Some are organized around specific issues, such as human rights, the environment or health. There are over 1500 NGOs currently working with the UN. The main UN web site contains an extensive list of NGOs organized alphabetically as well as by region and topic. Remember that many of your sources may be biased. If possible, try to find independent confirmation of the information you have obtained from more than one source. Moreover, when gathering information it is important to distinguish between opinions and facts. Facts are used to support opinions. Whenever possible use facts to support your arguments but don’t be surprised if there are instances when facts are not available. Ultimately, you will be presenting an opinion and must defend it against other opinions. Therefore, it is crucial for you to be familiar with different viewpoints and opinions on your topic. Study arguments that are different from the one your country is likely to take on your topic. Analyze the facts that are used to support opposing arguments. Sometimes the same facts can be used to support two different positions on a topic. Use your knowledge of the complex issues that underlie your topic to find gaps or errors in the reasoning used by those who oppose your posi