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I need you to respond to 2 of my classmates a nd use their references or different references’ need you to put the student name next to their respond so I know which is which.
Here are the students posts.
1 day agoValerie Marsman RE: Discussion – Week 1
Application of Interest
I am in the clinical psychology program here at Walden University. My hope is to become a licensed psychologist. I would like to practice in a community mental health center and then eventually have my own private practice. Community care has issues due to high drop-out (Lubek et al., 2018). However, I think community care can improve by being more accessible and increasing the quality of care provided. Health psychology is valuable to my future work. The concepts that are part of healthy psychology are highly related to mental health and disorder. Health psychology developed from psychology, behavioral medicine, and social psychology (Lubek et al., 2018). For example, an individual with back pain may also have anxiety; stress may negatively affect both. Illnesses pertinent to health psychology include addiction, phobias, anxiety, insomnia, and sexual dysfunction (Lubek et al., 2018). Many of the individuals I will see will have mental, physical, and behavioral health issues that aggravate each other and likely share underlying causes. Part of clients’ treatment will be to address health behavior. Addressing physical symptoms and behaviors can increase the positive outcomes of talk therapy. I would like to give holistic and integrative treatment. Providing resources for clients to work with a multitude of professionals for their health needs would also be ideal. However, there is the issue of cost effectiveness. Regardless, I think this type of treatment is most effective. Biopsychosocial Model Fit
The biopsychosocial model is the driving force for my interest in health psychology. The mind and body are part of a system that interacts with the environment and constructs subjective realities (Mehta, 2011). Health psychology can be used to prevent illnesses like lung cancer, cardiovascular disease, and more, for example, by helping people quit smoking or lose weight (Taylor, 1990). Biology, psychology, and society are the main factors that influence illness. These factors have a complex relationship where casualty is difficult to determine. There is evidence that negative affect, type A personality, and repression among other psychological factors may put individuals at risk of physical diseases and vice versa; while optimism, perceived control, and social support can foster resilience (Taylor, 1990). The biopsychosocial model is strongly and thoroughly explanatory of how illness develops and is maintained. For example, biological factors may predispose an individual to illness and play an important role in an individual’s personality. Social and environmental factors may then trigger, worsen, or even alleviate illness and symptoms. This model may not be used enough due to the power pharmaceutical companies have in funding, and selectively publishing, research (Mehta, 2011). Government funding also influenced psychologists’ interest in social concerns like ‘urban safety’ (Lubek et al., 2018). Social factors are perhaps especially of interest to clinical and health psychologists since these factors can be manipulated more easily to benefit individuals. Clinical psychologists, like those that use Cognitive Behavioral Therapy techniques, may focus on personality traits (i.e., negativity) that can be changed over time. Overall the model aligns with my professional interests. Social Change Agent
Upon graduation I will be in a good position to be a social change agent. My clinical educational background will be what puts me in that position. This is due to an educational focus on the biopsychosocial model and ecological systems theory. Learning about health psychology will greatly strengthen my ability to be a social change agent. Health psychology’s roots are steeped in the socio-political context of anti-war and social justice concerns (Lubek et al., 2018). These concepts facilitate an understanding of how social phenomena affect health and behaviors. There are a lot of areas of society that can be improved to better overall health for individuals. For example, social stigma is an area that can be improved. Wade and Halligan (n.d.) stated the biopsychosocial model predicts that altering social attitudes would alter illness as well. I also have a marketing background and I believe this gives me a unique perspective on how to communicate information to the public. The insight I have into how the public digests information can help me present it in a more appealing way; hopefully encouraging acceptance. Lubek, I., Ghabrial, M., Ennis, N., Crann, S., Jenkins, A., Green, M., Badali, J., Salmon, W., Moodley, J., Sulima, E., Yen, J., O’Doherty, K., & Barata, P. (2018). Notes on the development of health psychology and behavioral medicine in the United States. Journal of Health Psychology, 23(3), 492–505. https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105318755156
Mehta, N. (2011). Mind-body dualism: A critique from a health perspective. Mens Sana Monographs, 9(1), 202-209. doi:http://dx.doi.org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.4103/0973-1229.77436
Taylor, S. E. (1990). Health psychology: The science and the field. American Psychologist, 45(1), 40–50. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1037/0003-066X.45.1.40
Wade, D. T., & Halligan, P. W. (n.d.). The biopsychosocial model of illness: a model whose time has come. Clinical Rehabilitation, 31(8), 995–1004. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1177/0269215517709890
3 days agoAmy Van Styn RE: Discussion – Week 1 Van Styn
Week 1 Discussion Board: Health Psychology and You
Similar to many of the nurse theorists, my area of interest arose from personal experience and observation. In my early twenties, I suffered from the eating disorder anorexia nervosa, dropping to 75 pounds and was very ill. While I have been recovered for nearly 14 years and the physical signs are no longer present, I began to notice that the eating disorder mentality has remained. After some research, I found numerous studies related to the development of eating disorders, but very few that discuss what occurs following the recovery process. Initially, I conceived the idea to conduct research on recovered eating disorder patients to ascertain the influences on the continued eating disorder mentality and work to devise potential interventions to alleviate the continued mental processes. Upon further consideration however, I found myself questioning the entire concept of recovery. What is recovery? Can recovery be conceptualized? Can it be theoretically or operationally defined? Can it be measured? Eating disorders are mental illnesses analogous to depression or schizophrenia, thus I found myself asking how I can be considered “recovered” when the mentality remains and a relapse could result after a mere single trigger event. In nursing, the concept of health is defined in multiple ways, including a state of well-being, adaptation, and harmony between the body, mind, and soul (McEwen & Wills, 2019). The majority of nurses view the concept of health as not just a mere absence of disease, but on a continuum based on the patient’s definition of health. An individual could be suffering from chronic disease but maintain the ability to function, thus they define themselves as “healthy”. I believe recovery could be defined in a similar manner, along a continuum with varying points in the process ranging from complete recovery to mere symptom management. Thus, I intend to research this process of recovery concept development. Biopsychosocial Model
The biopsychosocial model is one of the earliest models to outline the biological, environmental, psychological, and social factors that play significant roles in disease development (Coreil, 2010). The field of nursing has shifted away from the traditional biomedical model and has begun to focus on the biopsychosocial model to better understand the factors the contribute to a patient’s health and improve outcomes. Therefore, nursing is undertaking a more holistic approach to patient care. With respect to the biopsychosocial model and the concept of recovery, many of the issues related to recovery failure or success align with concepts stemming from the biopsychosocial model. It should be noted that individuals with chronic illnesses can also undergo acute exacerbations of their illness, thus a degree of the recovery process is also experienced by chronically ill individuals. The biopsychosocial model allows a more holistic view of what encompasses recovery in both acute and chronic illnesses, including patient attitudes and perceptions, cultural influences, and environmental influences (Wade & Halligan, 2017). Being a patient-centered model, appropriate interventions to promote recovery can be elicited utilizing this model based on the individual patient needs. According to Wade and Halligan (2017), research has suggested the use of the biopsychosocial model in the rehabilitation of psychiatric and chronic pain patients. However, the biopsychosocial model is applicable in the care of most medical patients and thus, will be a useful contribution to the fields of medicine and psychology. Social Change
Being an introvert, I must admit when I started at Walden and even now, the term “social change agent” terrifies me. I am not one that will head into a community to start a large-scale social movement or speak in front of thousands of people and these are tasks I will never execute; thus, I was under the misconception that a PhD was out of reach for me. As I have progressed through my courses and talked with faculty members, I have realized that the term social change agent has multiple definitions, with the community social change agent as only one such definition. With respect to being a social change agent, I believe my contribution will lie in research and knowledge development as outlined by my topic interest. While I possess no clinical background in psychology, I do have clinical background in the nursing profession and believe this will be beneficial in linking the two fields for my future research. As I am already employed in the academic in nursing profession, I believe this is an ideal field for me to expand on and disseminate knowledge in both nursing and health psychology. References
Coreil, J. (2010). Social and behavioral foundations of public health (2nd ed.). Sage Publications. McEwen, M. & Wills, E.M. (2019). Theoretical basis for nursing (5th ed.). Wolters Kluwer. https://lccn.loc.gov/2017049174
Wade, D.T. & Halligan, P.W. (2017). The biopsychosocial model of illness: A model whose time has come. Clinical Rehabilitation, 31(8), 995—1004. DOI: 10.1177/0269215517709890