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Local food in tourism The integration of local food into the tourism product of a destination has long been recognised as a way to enhance the sustainable tourism development of a region. By consuming local food tourists get to know the region with its social and cultural characteristics. In addition, local food usually travels less and, hence, has fewer food miles. Finally, the money tourists spent on food – which can be up to one third of their budget – stays in the region and benefits local stakeholders, even those without tourism relation, such as agricultural producers. In relation to the cultural dimension, consuming food can be a social interaction, tourists can experience the region, locals can show their local culture and products. Your assignment is to research a local food product and / or a region/company etc of your choice. There are several conceptual ideas which you could discuss: Storytelling: What would the farmers and locals like to tell the tourists? What do tourists want to know? How should this be communicated? What stories or information would locals like to tell? Cultural Heritage How to people perceive the atmosphere of brewery X? What do visitors want to experience during their visit in the vineyard? Why do people buy product X as a souvenir when they travel to Y? Information to tourists: What information on (local) food is presented to visitors (e.g. on a restaurant via menu cards, interior, design etc.)? Motivation: Why do the visitors of X buy product Z? What motivates them? Mapping out the local Which products do locals / visitors perceive as local in region X What makes a local food product “local” in the eyes of locals/visitors/local producers Please make sure to specialise as much as possible to make your research specific. E.g. if you pick a region it might be wise to either pick a small region or focus on only one product. Equally, it is also recommended to only focus on one perspective such as either tourist or local. Academic criteria • A full research report must be written that fulfills the criteria as mentioned in the grading sheet of the end report/Bachelor dissertation. However, as the total report is only three EC instead of 18 for the dissertation, further details are listed below. The chapter structure, however, should be the same that you are used to for any research report. • All reports need a strong theoretical foundation. Use at least 15 academic sources (25 if assignment is done by two students), of which about half should not be older than three years. • The research method applied is based on primary research, such as questionnaires, interviews/ focus groups or observation, also online methods are an option. The research method can be chosen based on your research aim and research questions. In case questionnaires are chosen as research method: 50 questionnaires minimum; In case of interviews: 10 interviews minimum (depending however, whom you research), in case of observation: 4 specified dates/times minimum. (Numbers per student, so roughly double when you work with the two of you.*) As usual, method must be justified in methodology chapter. If you analyse qualitative documents such as blogs, also ten are a applicable. For a reviews, it should be minimum 15-20 per person. • Further tips and elaboration of the academic criteria: Make your topic as specific as possible, do not choose a country or a big region, as this might make your research too complicated. Also, concentrate on specific target groups (e.g. do you research the perspective of the tourists or the locals? A specific sub-groups of locals (e.g. farmers) or tourists (e.g. baby boomers)). The more specific you choose your topic, the easier it will be for you and the more valid the research will be. E,g. a research on the local food of the Netherlands does not make sense, as different parts of the Netherlands differ in their regional food. (To give some examples here: the best report of 2017-18 was from a student who lives in a region close to a nature protection area where many day-trippers/ (German) tourists go and she simply interviewed the potato farmers (yes, potatoes….) around who sell potatoes to the day-trippers in their mini-shop at their farm and the results were really interesting to read. The best report 2018-19 was on what stories Walbecker asparagus farmers would like to tell their visitors/tourists about he asparagus. Walbeck is a provincial town with less than 5000 inhabitants but people do visit during the asparagus season… close to perfect report. The winner report 2019-2020 was on one specific brewery.) *Concerning the primary research: in the last years, this seemed to be the biggest headache. We do accept a lower number of than in the assignment stated amount of primary research, if reasonable. This, however, is connected to the paragraph just written as further tips: If you specialise on a city with five local food producers and you manage to interview three – perfect. Same if the number of tourists coming to a region is rather low and you have 40 questionnaires then, or if you analyse all four restaurants in a village on every detail how they communicate to their customers via observation, this may be just as fine (In fact, two students did just that last year and it was close to perfect). However, if you choose Austria and then want to conduct your questionnaires in one city among tourists (this was a suggestion by a student last year), well, that does not quite fit (Austria has many, many different kinds of tourists from everywhere and then 50 questionnaires are ridiculous because you cannot generalise on anything.). So, the amount of primary research you conduct must fit with your PS and Research Questions, therefore, if you keep your topic down to the point, less primary research might be reasonable and give reliable results. (Edit: That also implies that you are not automatically fail the assignment, if you have less than the stated numbers.) Coming back to the student that interviewed the potatoes farmers: there were nine farms that sold their products to the tourists and she interviewed all nine of them, hence, perfect. Lastly, a combination of methods is possible as well if reasonable. Further information: • The assignment may be done individually or in groups of two students. (Please be aware that you can choose whom to work with, but distribution of workload etc. is your own responsibility, we will not interfere in any way in your group work. This means if during the process your group work fails, this is your problem. This sounds harsh, but this is a condition of the Exam Committee, simply because the deadline of the assignment is when you are already on exchange and therefore beyond our reach.) • The replacement entails the work hours of the 3EC and therewith the 3 final weeks of the module. The assignment is graded on the workload of 3EC per student. (1EC=28 work hours) ——————— Structure: Criteria Assessment Rubrics ITM Dissertations explained Introduction Topic: (Dublin Descriptor 3*) • The topic fits the field of study; tourism • The topic of research is clear and well defined • The context is of research topic is given: e.g. historical, social, economic perspective on topic of research Aim: (Dublin Descriptor 2*) • The relevance of research topic is explained: e.g. for the organisation, or society • The contribution of the research is well defined: e.g. for the organisation or society • The contribution of the research gives new insights in the research topic Problem statement: (Dublin Descriptor 2*) • The problem statement follows the aim of research • New knowledge/insight is needed in order to answer the problem statement • Issues for further investigation are defined: description of broad theoretical issues to be explored in order to answer the problem statement (these are NOT the research questions, these are to be presented after the literature review) Statement on structure dissertation: (Dublin Descriptor 4*) • An explanation to the reader on how the dissertation is structured and what to expect in the following chapters Referencing: • References according to the given guidelines (APA referencing) Literature Review Relevance literature review: (Dublin Descriptor 2*) • Literature review discusses concepts following the problem statement • Literature review seeks explanation of the problem statement and issues for investigation as described in the introduction • Literature review focuses on key issues Critical reflection: (Dublin Descriptor 3*) • Literature review discusses concepts from different/contrasting points of views (each concept is discussed using different authors) and is NOT presenting a summary of main literature. • Literature review is objective and is a representation of what other authors wrote about the presented concepts • Literature review does NOT show any speculations formulated by the student him/herself Academic level: (Dublin Descriptor 1*) • The sources used represent the academic discussion on the topic of study • The use of ‘non-academic’ sources is allowed, but should support and illustrate the academic discussion Conceptual model: (Dublin Descriptor 3*) • A conceptual model is presented, showing the main concepts discussed in the literature review • The relations between the concepts is indicated • The relevance of the presented concepts, and their relations are explained • The conceptual model reflects the main idea of the problem statement, and research questions can be formulated on basis of the presented conceptual model Referencing: • References according to the given guidelines (APA referencing) Sources: • Sources used are at relevant BA level • Sources used are relevant and contribute to answering the problem statement and research questions • Sources used illustrate different points of view on theoretical concepts • An adequate number of academic sources are used (minimum 45) Research Questions and Research Methods Research Questions: (Dublin Descriptor 4*) • Research questions are relevant and deduced from the problem statement • Research questions represent relevant concepts discussed in literature review • Research questions represent the concepts of the conceptual model • For each of the research questions, a justification and link to theoretical concepts is given • Research questions focus on empirical part of the research • Research questions are original, and have not been answered before • Research questions are open questions, based on the ‘SMART’-rules (no yes/no answers) • As an indication, 4 to 6 research questions should do Research Methods: (Dublin Descriptor 4*) • For each of the research questions an adequate research method is presented and justified • The research methods are appropriate and will generate answers to the research questions • Population and sample size are clearly described, and both fit the purpose of research • Sample size fits a confidence level of 95% (confidence interval 5%) and probability sampling is applied (applicable for quantitative research, if decided otherwise, clear justification included) • Sample size for qualitative research up to saturation point (if decided otherwise, clear justification included) • Clear and detailed outline of sampling is presented (how many, why, when, how, where, how long etc.) in order to provide enough information for a replication of the study • Validity of research is explained: an explanation of why measurement instruments (e.g. interview scheme, observation sheets or questionnaire) measure what they intend to measure and explanation is given on why conclusions based on sample size can be generalised to the broader population • Reliability of research is discussed: explanation of why research is non-biased (e.g. by discussing external factors during data collection and/or by discussing the relevance of some statistical techniques to test on reliability (t-test, chi square and possible other techniques) • Critical reflection to the limitations of the chosen research methods is given • Topic lists, observation schedules, questionnaires etc. should be provided (appendices) • A research matrix, including problem statement, main theoretical concepts, research questions, information needed to answer research questions, the research methods and the specific reference to the measurement instrument is presented (appendix) • Transcripts of relevant questions and answers of interviews are present (appendix) Referencing: • References according to the given guidelines (APA referencing) Results and Analysis Results: (Dublin Descriptor 3*) • Results are an objective reflection of analysed data and should not represent speculations of the author • Findings should address the original issues for investigation • Critical reflection to the findings and its (possible) limitations is given • Author should give the impression that (s)he fully understands the nature and relative importance of the findings • Appropriate figures, tables, illustrations, quotes etc. are used as an illustration of the text Analysis: (Dublin Descriptor 3*) • The results should be presented on an aggregate level: meaning results should not be presented per question form questionnaire or interview question but should be presented at the level of concepts in the conceptual model or research questions • The presented results are linked and compared to theoretical concepts • Where applicable, comparison with earlier research (presented in the literature review) is given Referencing: • References according to the given guidelines (APA referencing) Conclusions and Recommendations Conclusions (Dublin Descriptor 4*) • Conclusions provide an answer to the research questions • Conclusions provide an answer to the problem statement • Conclusions are based on the results presented in the previous chapter • Contribution of research is clearly presented, limitations / evaluation of research as well • Conclusions do NOT provide new results/information Recommendations (Dublin Descriptor 5*) • Recommendations are based the results from analysed data and conclusions • Recommendations are creative, adequate, realistic and practical • Recommendations are sustainable: a long term impact • Recommendations for further research Referencing: • References according to the given guidelines (APA referencing)