Roman Stoics are referring directly to the Greek Stoics’ philosophy (e.g., that

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Roman Stoics are referring directly to the Greek Stoics’ philosophy (e.g., that of Zeno, Chrysippus, etc.), they seem to have lost touch with Stoicism’s roots in Cynicism (e.g., Diogenes). Cynicism’s interpretation of “living in accordance with nature” had a hard bias toward ascetic self-denial, and Greek Stoics, with this as their reference, come off as pretty tough. Roman Stoicism (e.g., Epictetus, Marcus Aurelius, and particularly CATO THE YOUNGER and CICERO), as a result, generally feels a bit warmer. It also emphasizes our communion with God/Reason/Cosmos as one and the same as our communion with our fellow men. It certainly has softer edges than Chrysippus. PLESE CONSIDER THE ROLE OF RELIGION IN Stoic philosophy in particular (one paper is attached).

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