Should the United States adopt the flat tax system? I.    Introduction: In parag

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Should the United States adopt the flat tax system?
I.    Introduction:
In paragraph form include here basic background information such as
•    The current proposals,
•    A description of the current tax system,
•    Why this is an issue. 
Provide a history of the issue as well as an overview of previous policies should be included.  This section is likely to be about 2 pages in length.]
II. Opposing Viewpoints:
A.    Yes, the United States should adopt the flat tax system
1. Current system has too many loopholes
[then elaborate]
2. Flat Tax would balance the budget
[then elaborate]
3. Flat tax creates equity
[then elaborate]
4. Current system costs too much
[then elaborate]
5. Current system penalizes success
[then elaborate]
6. Generates more revenue
[then elaborate]
7. Pays for national defense and wars
[then elaborate]
8. Pays for quality education system
[then elaborate]
9. Pays for quality health care
[then elaborate]
10. Pays for infrastructure
[then elaborate]
11. Forces Congress to make tough decisions
[then elaborate]
12. Current system creates too much bureaucracy
[then elaborate]
13. Frees private funds for job creation
B. No, the United States should NOT adopt the flat tax system
1. Current system works
[then elaborate]
2. Flat tax is regressive: hurts those who make less
[then elaborate]
3. Flat tax would not generate enough revenue
[then elaborate]
4. Flat tax would not eliminate loopholes
[then elaborate]
5. Flat tax would create more inequality
[then elaborate]
6. Generates more revenue
[then elaborate]
7. Corporations benefit from current system
[then elaborate]
8. Individuals do not benefit from flat tax
[then elaborate]
9. Flat tax disempowers many
[then elaborate]
10. Forces Congress to make tough decisions
[then elaborate]
11. Current system simply needs enforcement
[then elaborate]
12. current system creates jobs at Federal level
[then elaborate]
•    The goal in Part II is to convince the reader of each side. 
•    You should exhaust all of the empirical, logical and even emotional arguments of each viewpoint; you should have AS MANY separate points / arguments as possible – more than 5!
III. Analysis:
•    In paragraph form present what is REALLY happening! 
•    Start with an overview of the “reality” which includes repeating the ‘yes’ and ‘no’ arguments from Part II which are true.  Focus on the empirical.
•    Good analysis also includes a discussion of the 3 basic questions:
o    Who is making policy / within which decision-making process are decisions being made?
o    Who is benefitting?
o    Who has power / what is the locus of power?
•    Again, this is the most important part of the paper!
IV. Policy Prescription:
•    In paragraph form, answer the original question based on the analysis from above.
•    Do not include analysis in this section.
======================================
Again, use this exact outline and format for your Controversial Issues Paper.  Think of this as a policy analysis paper.  Think about and identify for whom you might be writing this paper.
TOPIC CHOICE:
Choose something in which you have an interest.  There is nothing worse than having to write on something of which you have very little or no interest. Topics can include any aspect of an economic (developmental, fiscal), political, military, environmental, ideological, social etc… issue plaguing the international scene. 
o    It is certainly fine if the topic changes – it will if the process of significant research and reading is done properly
o    Sources for topics are abundant, with the assigned readings and newspapers as logical starting points.  Again, choose an issue in which you are interested.
Topics are to be cleared with me as soon as possible, but
•    No later than Friday, September 11, 2020
•    At the beginning of class have the following information on a 3 x 5 index card:
o    Name
o    Year in school
o    Declared or potential major
o    Topic of paper
•    It is certainly fine if you think you might change your topic a bit.
Sources for topics are abundant, with the assigned readings and newspapers as logical starting points.  Again, choose an issue in which you are interested.
SUBMISSION AND OTHER GRADING REQUIREMENTS:
a.    Two copies of this paper must be submitted.
b.    These are due Thursday, November 12, 2020 by 4:30 pm via email as an attached Word document.  If you have the proclivity of being late – do not on this day, because…
c.    A full letter grade FOR EACH DAY LATE will be deducted for late papers starting with the due date and time. 
d.    Do not procrastinate.  This due date will NOT change – you have about 13 weeks to write this paper.
e.    Again, you may consult with the professor as much as needed.
f.    ROUGH publishS:
    Many rough publishs can be submitted early for revision and help.
    This almost always helps in collection of material and sources used.
    This almost always helps in the articulation of the thesis and the development of the material used in support.
    This almost always results in grade / score improvement.
    However, a date will be chosen approximately 3 days before papers are due when no more early publishs will be accepted.
g.    This project is worth 20% of your final grade.
h.    Grading is based on all of the above and below, using the matrix listed on the last two pages of this handout and the grading sheet below.
 Copyright Roger J. Durham
CONTROVERSIAL ISSUE PAPER GRADE SHEET
Student: ______________________            Grade:    _______________________
I. Introduction:    Comments:
Question at the top   
Appropriate Question / Framing   
Proper Historical Framework   
II. Opposing Viewpoints:    Comments:
Separation of Viewpoints:
Yes and No   
Separation of each Argument:
3-5 word phrase & Substantiation   
Covered all logical, empirical, and  emotional arguments   
Related each point to original question   
III. Analysis:    Comments:
Overview of Reality   
Addressed 3 basic questions
Decision-making, Benefit, Power   
IV. Policy Prescription:   
Answers original question   
Fits with Analysis / Realistic   
Writing / Research:
(Applied to Distributed 4.0 – 1.0 Standards)    Comments:
Writing:   
Citations:   
Bibliography:   
Headings as Above:   
Other:   
TAKE Advantage of opportunities to turn in rough/early publishs.  Any time a prof gives this option – do it: remember – this is not MSU!!  Use the faculty at AQ.
BASIC PAPER WRITING HINTS
•    TIME MANAGEMENT: One of the biggest problems in college papers is that they are often started the night before they are due.  This is usually a good way to insure a mediocre grade!
o    Start early, produce rough outlines and rough publishs. 
o    GET HELP from the instructor or writing lab/tutor. 
o    Do research early, because… any good paper requires significant library research (see below) and this requires…
o    Hours and hours of reading; this is often a very time consuming and arduous task.
o    Proper planning and an early start always help!
•    MAKE IT CLEAR: Write as clearly and cleanly as possible.  If possible, replace three words with one.  Do not hint around the points or arguments.  Hit the reader over the head!  Because of the space limitations, arguments should be clear and concise.  Clarity of argument(s) and analysis of issue are major factors in grading.
•    RESEARCH:  All of the other items listed here have to do with research. 
o    It takes a long time to read enough material to write a good paper. 
o    It is very likely that much of what is initially read and researched will not be used in the paper, especially as the topic narrows and focuses on specific arguments.
o    It is crucial that reliable and scholarly sources are used along with newspaper and other source media. 
o    Good papers have a wide variety of legitimate sources, evidence and substantiation, so…
o    Significant research is expected.
o    Outside sources will have to be used. 
o    A paper with internet sources only will not pass. 
•    CITATIONS and BIBLIOGRAPHY:
o    Properly used references and footnotes / endnotes must be included where appropriate.
    Always cite every source
    Plagiarism is a serious offence
o    For citations within your paper you may use MLA, APA or footnotes or endnotes. 
    If endnotes are used, they are to be the second to the last page(s) of the paper. 
    If footnotes are used, they are to appear at the bottom of each page.
    MLA citations appear parenthetically within the text.
    Be consistent.
o    Bibliography: Each paper must include an alphabetically arranged list (bibliography) of all sources.
    This is to be the last page(s) of the paper.
o    For proper format consult one or more of the following:
    Your professor  Writing Expectations Guide
    Hacker, Diana.  A Writer’s Reference, Bedford / St. Martin’s, 6th Edition, 2010.
    The styles linked at the AQ Library website at:
•    https://www.aquinas.edu/grace-hauenstein-library/citation-style
    MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers.
    American Political Science Association.  Style Manual for Political Science. APSA, 2018 (https://mk0apsaconnectbvy6p6.kinstacdn.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/43/2018/11/Style-Manual-for-Political-Science-2018.pdf
•    PRESENTATION:  While content is certainly the most important aspect of any good research paper, it is still important to present a nice product.  This includes:
o    Numbered pages.
o    A title page with the author’s name, the class, the professor, the title of the paper, the date, the college, etc…
o    Typed and double-spaced, with consistent size of letters (12-point font) and one inch margins.
o    Staple the paper together in the upper left hand corner.  Do not use any other method of bundling other than the basic, common staple.
•    PROOFREAD, PROOFREAD, AND PROOFREAD!!!  Always proofread all written work grammar, spelling and word choice issues, including the following common errors:
o    Misspelled words
o    Punctuation problems
o    Compound sentences: again, say it as clearly and cleanly as possible.
o    Incomplete sentences:
    Predicates without subjects
    Subjects without predicates
o    Grammar:
    Make sure verbs agree with subjects
    Avoid dangling, splitting and nominalizing
    Do not end sentences with prepositions
•    GET FEEDBACK:
o    Always try to get feedback. 
o    As noted below, rough publishs may be submitted for review
    Submit as many of these as possible
o    Have a peer review the work because critiquing one’s own work is very difficult – have someone else help! 
o    Take a publish to the Academic Achievement Office / Writing Center in Wege.
o    After writing a publish, let it sit for a few days. This will provide needed perspective.
 Copyright Roger J. Durham
DURHAM’S WRITING STANDARDS
4.0 EXCELLENT:
Content:    Central idea or proposition clearly limited and defined; developed with originality, careful thought, unity and logic; supported substantially and concretely.
Structure:    Theme planned so that it progresses by clearly ordered and necessary stages; paragraphs unified and developed with unusual effectiveness; transitions between and within paragraphs are clear and effective; paragraphs and sentences are coherent and emphatic.
Style:    Sentences are clear, coherent and emphatic; structural patterns and word order consistently appropriate to purpose; the writer displays ability to choose and arrange a variety of sentence patterns; diction is appropriate and idiomatic.
Mechanics:    No errors in grammar, punctuation or spelling;
3.0 GOOD:
Content:    Central idea or proposition limited and defined with more than usual care and clarity; developed fully with consistent attention to proportion, emphasis and unity; supported with sufficient and consistently relevant detail.
Structure:    Theme planned so that its purpose and method are consistently apparent and fulfilled, paragraphs well-developed and unified; transitions between paragraphs explicit and effective; paragraphs and sentences coherent and emphatic.
Style:    Sentences are generally clear, coherent and emphatic; structural patterns and word order generally appropriate to purpose; the writer displays ability to choose and arrange a variety of sentence patterns; diction is generally appropriate and idiomatic.
Mechanics:    Except for rare or isolated errors, grammar and punctuation follow accepted conventions; only rare or infrequent misspellings.
2.0 SATISFACTORY / AVERAGE:
Content:    Central idea or proposition adequately defined but trite, trivial, or too general; or developed adequately but with disproportion or inappropriate emphasis; or supported adequately but with repetition or sketchiness; bottom line: too broad and too vague.
Structure:    Plan, purpose and method of theme are apparent but fulfilled unimaginatively or incompletely; or paragraphs unified and coherent but occasionally ineffective in development; or transitions between paragraphs usually clear but occasionally abrupt or mechanical; or sentences coherent but occasionally monotonous, unemphatic or ineffective in structure.
Style:    Sentences sometimes unclear, incoherent or unemphatic; structural patterns and word order only sometimes appropriate to purpose; writer displays some ability to vary sentence patterns; diction is sometimes inappropriate, vague or unidiomatic.
Mechanics:    Occasional errors in grammar, punctuation or spelling.
1.0 AND LOWER – POOR / FAILING:
Content:    Central idea or proposition loosely defined or poorly thought out; or developed and supported with occasional irrelevance, redundancy or inconsistency; generally lacks unity.
Structure:    Plan, purpose and method of theme not consistently apparent; or paragraphs that do not flow or inadequately developed; or transitions between paragraphs only occasionally incoherent.
Style:    Sentences often unclear, incoherent or unemphatic; structural patterns and word order seldom appropriate to purpose; writer seldom displays ability to vary sentence patterns; diction is inappropriate, vague or unidiomatic often enough to interfere with the expression and development of important ideas.
Mechanics:    Frequent errors in grammar, punctuation or spelling.

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