When a city is purchased, there “the first is to demolish it, the second is to travel there personally, and the third is… putting up a government consisting of a few individuals who will keep it favorable to you,” the author writes of the three ways to maintain control over it.

Chapter 7: Why did Machiavelli fear foreign invasion in Italy?
According to Machiavelli, both new and ancient monarchies, as well as mixed principalities, need stern treatment from princes. A “natural hazard… the readiness of men to trade one lord for another, expecting thus to improve their condition” exists in all new and mixed realms. The ruler must be extremely stern, disarm the public, and exercise caution at all times to prevent rebellions. A prince finds it easier to maintain control once he has put down one uprising because he can use it as a reason to solidify his position by increasing his power.
According to Machiavelli, retaining authority over a city is considerably more difficult than gaining it. When a city is purchased, there “The first is to demolish it, the second is to travel there personally, and the third is… putting up a government consisting of a few individuals who will keep it favorable to you,” the author writes of the three ways to maintain control over it. A prince should not lose sight of a city after he has taken control of it since it is so easily lost. It is still possible to lose control even while using one of Machiavelli’s three strategies for holding onto a city. In Renaissance Italy, uprisings were frequent, and to defend against them, it was vital to maintain the city under the prince’s control at all times a feat that was much easier said than done.
Which one is the correct answer and why?
-Lack of education among the people.
-Lack of unity among the city-states.
-Lack of wealth
-Illiteracy in the lower classes.
Chapter 7: What transpired after the Pope returned to Rome in 1377?
Following the Papacy’s return in 1377, the Great Schism-among the most tragic occasions in church history took place. The College of Cardinals split between French and Italian groups, which resulted in the election of two popes, one who presided from Rome and the other from Avignon. There have been two opposing assertions of universal sovereignty and acrimonious disagreements inside the church for more than thirty years. People in the public questioned if any Christian soul could reach heaven when each pope excommunicated the other. The Avignon papacy had stoked intense anticlericalism in Christians who believed Rome to be the papacy’s original seat, but the Great Schism compromised the fundamental sanctity of the Holy office, making it far worse for the church’s reputation.

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