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Write essay answers to any TWO questions. I expect you to take about 60 minutes to answer each questions. The maximum score for the exam is 20 points, 10 points for each essay answer. Your answer to each question should be at least 5 paragraphs, that is, an introductory paragraph, at least three body paragraphs and a conclusion paragraph. In your responses, you may cite relevant sources, but you need not give a full citation for each source or a bibliography — give the author’s name and year of publication within parentheses in your text. Transcription from print or electronic sources is prohibited, except for brief quotations (only one per answer), which should include a complete citation including page number. Notice that questions have several parts. Make sure you answer all of them. What is the “Rise and Decline” thesis? Evaluate the historical accuracy of the thesis with brief examples from at least two scientific disciplines. Before 1750, how did the education of scientists in the Islamicate world differ from the education of scientists in Europe? What were the main features of the medical theory and methods of treatment inherited from Galen? How, if at all, did Islamicate physicians modify or extend this tradition? Describe the similarities and differences between modern Western hospitals and traditional Islamicate hospitals (bimaristans). How many of the common features originated in the Islamicate tradition? Briefly describe the major figures in Islamic astronomy from the fall of the Abbasid caliphate to the beginning of the Western ‘Scientific Revolution’ (1258-c1543 CE). How many of these figures, and the issues they addressed, appear in the work of Nicholas Copernicus? How does the practice of science and other intellectual pursuits by men and women in the Islamicate world up to 1700 compare the practice of the same or similar fields by men and women in Europe? “The Sultan’s harem was a place of slavery, seclusion and sex.” Is this an accurate historical depiction of the harem’s place in Ottoman society during the early modern period? How did scientific practice in Safavid Persia and Mughal India continue or extend earlier Islamicate science? Give at least two examples of continuities in theory (scientific knowledge) and institutions (places where science was practiced). How did Islamicate science contribute to the development of Renaissance art in Italy? Considering all the information you have examined in this course, what three ideas or innovations would you choose as the most important contributions of Islamicate science to the rest of the world?